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- Allele: One version of a gene at a given location (locus) along a chromosome.
- Alveolus (plural - Alveoli): Thin-walled air sac in the lung which permits gas exchange.
- Autosomal: Refers to any of the chromosomes other than the sex-determining chromosomes (i.e., the X and Y) or the genes on these chromosomes.
- Autosomal Dominant: Describes a trait or disorder in which the phenotype is expressed in those who have inherited only one copy of a particular gene mutation (heterozygotes); specifically refers to a gene on one of the 22 pairs of autosomes (non-sex chromosomes).
- Autosomal Recessive: Describes a trait or disorder requiring the presence of two copies of a gene mutation at a particular locus in order to express observable phenotype; specifically refers to genes on one of the 22 pairs of autosomes (non-sex chromosomes).
- Axoneme: The structure of a cilium.