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  • Basal Body: A structure in the cytoplasm that anchors microtubules to the cell.
  • Base Pair (bp): Two nitrogenous bases (adenine and thymine or guanine and cytosine) held together by weak bonds. Two strands of DNA are held together in the shape of a double helix by the bonds between base pairs.
  • Base Sequence:  The order of nucleotide bases in a DNA molecule.
  • Base Sequence Analysis: A method, sometimes automated, for determining the base sequence.
  • Bronchiectasis: Abnormal dilation of the airways caused by chronic infection and inflammation.
  • Bronchiole: The smallest airway in the lung that branches into the alveoli.
  • Bronchiolitis: Inflammation of the bronchioles, which causes wheezing and coughing.
  • Bronchitis: Inflammation of the larger conducting airways, which causes a harsh cough and increased sputum production.
  • Bronchoalveolar Lavage: The collection of lower airway and alveolar secretions using a bronchoscope.
  • Bronchoscopy: The use of a bronchoscope to examine the lower airways.
  • Bronchus (plural - Bronchi): The larger conducting airway that branch from the trachea.