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Bronchiectasis is an irreversible, pathological finding defined as enlargement (“ectasia”) of the airways (“bronchi’) of the lung, usually caused by chronic infection and permanent damage of the lower respiratory tract. Symptoms typically include a chronic, productive cough that yields purulent mucus, and other symptoms may include shortness of breath, chest pain, wheezing, and coughing up blood (“hemoptysis”). Affected individuals occasionally have increased respiratory symptoms caused by lung infections, requiring antibiotic therapy, and referred to as exacerbations.